(Benjamin Pinkus, The Jews of the Soviet Union, Cambridge University
Press, 1988, p. 83.)

"If we take all three sectors of the administration,
it emerges that of the 417 people who constituted the
ruling elite of the Soviet Union in the mid 1920s (the
members of the Central Executive Committee, the Party
Central Committee, the Presidium of the Executive of the
Soviets of the USSR and the Russian Republic, the Ministers,
and the Chairman of the Executive Committee),
twenty-seven (that is 6%) were Jews."